何丽楠,赵明明,赵天才,郝向泽,张绪争,何瑞银.稻麦兼用螺旋槽式排种器的设计与试验[J].湖南农业大学学报:自然科学版,2019,45(6):.
稻麦兼用螺旋槽式排种器的设计与试验
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  螺旋槽式排种器  小麦条播  水稻旱穴直播  转速  工作长度
英文关键词:spiral trough seed metering  wheat stripping  rice dry hole direct seeding  rotating speed  working length
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300908);江苏省科技重点项目(BE2016381)
作者单位
何丽楠,赵明明,赵天才,郝向泽,张绪争,何瑞银 1.南京农业大学工学院/江苏省智能化农业装备重点实验室江苏 南京 2100312.苏州市相城区黄埭镇综合执法局江苏 苏州 2151433.苏州市相城区农业局江苏 苏州 215100 
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中文摘要:
      为满足苏北稻麦轮作区小麦条播、水稻旱穴直播的种植需求,解决外槽轮排种器播种不均匀、稻麦兼用性不良的问题,设计了一种稻麦兼用螺旋槽式排种器。该排种器主要工作部件为手轮、播量调节装置和排种轮,通过旋转手轮推动播量调节装置改变排种轮工作长度,进而控制排种轮槽大小,实现不同播量条件下的稻麦兼用。设计确定了排种器的螺旋角范围、排种轮槽的直径和高度、排种轮直径等关键结构参数,根据苏北地区稻麦种植的播量要求,划分了排种器的工作区段。为获得最佳螺旋角度,选取小麦开展试验,得到排种器最佳螺旋角为30°;最佳螺旋角条件下,以转速和工作长度为变量,开展水稻和小麦排种性能试验。结果表明:排种器播种小麦的最佳转速为34.93 r/min,最佳工作长度为1.28 cm;播种水稻的最佳转速为35 r/min,最佳工作长度为0.6 cm;构建了小麦排量预测模型,该模型决定系数R2为0.987。对排种器播种宁麦13、苏麦11和水稻南粳46、苏秀867适用性进行验证,结果播种小麦的破碎率分别为0.24%和0.27%,变异系数分别为1.71%和1.66%,排种量与预测值间的偏差分别为7.14%和7.78%;播种水稻的合格指数分别为92.40%和91.73%,漏播指数分别为3.73%和4.26%,重播指数分别为3.87%和4.01%,变异系数分别为3.11%和3.84%。排种器对稻麦品种的适用性良好。
英文摘要:
      In order to meet the planting needs of wheat drill and direct seeding in the dry hole of rice in the rice and wheat rotation area of northern Jiangsu province, and to solve the problems of uneven sowing and poor utilization of both rice and wheat for the outer groove seed metering, a spiral trough seed metering was designed for both rice and wheat. The main working parts of the seed metering are the handwheel, the sowing quantity regulating mechanism and the seed metering wheel. By rotating the handwheel, the sowing quantity regulating mechanism is pushed to change the working length of the seed metering wheel, and then the size of the seed metering wheel groove is controlled to realize the dual use of rice and wheat under different sowing quantity conditions. The key structural parameters such as the spiral angle range, the diameter and height of the seed row groove and the diameter of the seed row wheel were determined. Wheat was selected as experiment to obtain the optimal helical angle of seed metering, which is determined as 30°. Under the optimum helical angle, rice and wheat seeding performance tests were carried out with the rotation speed and the working length as variables. The results showed that the optimum speed of sowing wheat was 34.93 r/min, and the optimum working length was 1.28 cm. The optimal speed of sowing rice was 35 r/min, and the optimal working length was 0.6 cm. A wheat displacement prediction model was constructed, with a determination coefficient R2 of 0.987. The applicability of the planter was verified for the sowing wheat of Ningmai 13, Sumai 11 and rice of Nanjing 46 and Suxiu 867. The results showed that the fragmentation rate of sowing wheat was 0.24% and 0.27%, the coefficient of variation was 1.71% and 1.66%, and the deviation between the sowing quantity and the predicted value was 7.14% and 7.78%, respectively. The eligible indexes of sowing rice were 92.40% and 91.73%, the unsown indexes were 3.73% and 4.26%, the replay indexes were 3.87% and 4.01%, and the coefficient of variation was 3.11% and 3.84%, respectively.
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