周华兰,彭亚丽,李婷,谢鹰飞,唐丽梅,王榕,熊兴耀,王万兴,胡新喜.马铃薯连作对土壤理化性质和生物学特性的影响[J].湖南农业大学学报:自然科学版,2019,45(6):.
马铃薯连作对土壤理化性质和生物学特性的影响
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  马铃薯  连作  土壤酶活性  土壤微生物  土壤理化性质
英文关键词:potato  continuous cropping  soil enzyme activity  soil microorganism  soil physicochemical properties
基金项目:农业部马铃薯产业技术体系(CARS–09–ES16);马铃薯化肥农药减施技术集成研究与示范项目(2018YFD0200800);湖南省大学生创新创业训练计划项目(SCX1710)
作者单位
周华兰,彭亚丽,李婷,谢鹰飞,唐丽梅,王榕,熊兴耀,王万兴,胡新喜 1.湖南农业大学园艺园林学院湖南 长沙 4101282.湖南省马铃薯工程技术研究中心湖南 长沙 410128 3.中国农业科学院蔬菜花卉研究所北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      为揭示南方马铃薯连作障碍产生的机理,以金湘为材料,研究马铃薯连作对南方土壤理化性质、微生物数量、酶活性的影响。结果表明:新开垦土壤种植的马铃薯产量为43.69 t/hm2,未见块茎发生疮痂病,连作土壤马铃薯产量显著降低,为25.63 t/hm2,疮痂病薯率显著增加,为6.7%;种植1季春马铃薯后,连作土壤和新开垦土壤pH均降低,有效磷、全磷、全氮、碱解氮、速效钾和有机质含量增加,土壤放射菌总数降低,细菌总数和真菌总数均增加,土壤蔗糖酶活性、过氧化氢酶活性、磷酸酶活性、脲酶活性增加,转化酶活性降低;与新开垦土壤和第1季土壤相比,连作土壤的pH值及全氮、有机质含量显著降低,碱解氮含量降低,全磷、有效磷和速效钾含量显著增加;连作土壤的细菌总数和放射菌总数减少,真菌总数增加,真菌总数与细菌总数的比值显著增加;连作土壤的过氧化氢酶活性、转化酶活性和蔗糖酶活性增加,脲酶活性和磷酸酶活性降低。
英文摘要:
      Continuous cropping affects the yield and quality of potatoes. In order to reveal the potential mechanism of potato continuous cropping obstacles in southern China, we set up a serial experiments in this study to investigate the effects of potato continuous cropping on soil physical and chemical properties, microbial biomass and enzyme activities. The results showed that the potato planted in newly reclaimed soil yielded in 43.69 t/hm2 without showing common scab symptoms of tubers. The potato yield in continuous cropping soil was significantly reduced to 25.63 t/hm2 with the scab symptoms on tubers, accounting for 6.7%. After planting potatoes for one season in spring, the soil pH decreased, while the available phosphorus, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available potassium and organic matter increased. At the same time, the total number of soil radiobacterium decreased and the total number of bacteria and fungi increased. Moreover, the activities of soil invertase, catalase, phosphatase and urease increased, while the invertase activity decreased. Compared with newly reclaimed soil and the first season soil, the pH, total nitrogen, and organic matter of continuous cropping soil decreased significantly with alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen decreasing and the available phosphorus, total phosphorus, and available potassium increased significantly. In addition, the total number of soil radiobacterium and bacteria decreased in continuous cropping soil, while the total number of fungi increased and the ratio of total number of fungi to total number of bacteria increased significantly. Moreover, the activities of catalase, invertase, and sucrose increased, however the activities of phosphatase and urease decreased in continuous cropping soil.
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